Resolving Conflicts

In this section, we take a look at resolving conflicts.

This section assumes that we are working on a web project with a very basic index.html file. We created 2 branches index_a and index_b. Both made changes on the index.html file.

Here is the git log output:

$ git log
* 94c2e8f - (index_b) Update copyright.
* 3707797 - Update header.
| * fd581eb - (HEAD, index_a) Update index with 2015.
* 52aec20 - (master)

When we try to merge index_b with index_a, it shows a conflict. When you git log, you won’t see the merge commit appears. This doesn’t mean the merge is aborted. It just mean the merge is paused and waiting us for further operations.

(index_a) $ git merge index_b
Auto-merging index.html
CONFLICT (content): Merge conflict in index.html
Automatic merge failed; fix conflicts and then commit the result.
makzan@mz-main:~/workspace/git-samples/test2 (index_a|MERGING) $

When we git status, there is an “unmerged changes”.

Unmerged paths:
  (use "git add <file>..." to mark resolution)

    both modified:      index.html

Or in short form of status, there is a UU.

UU index.html

When you open the index.html in editor, you should see something like <<<<, ==== and >>>>.

Conflict example:

This is HTML Sample for my Git course.

Title: This is a sample.

<<<<<<< HEAD
Footer: Copyright 2015.
Footer: Copyright 2016.
>>>>>>> index_b

If you just want to keep one version from either branch, you may use --theirs or --ours.

$ git checkout --ours index.html
$ git checkout --theirs index.html

If you want to get back the conflicted merge status, you can use the --merge option.

$ git checkout --merge index.html

After you manually clean up the file and get rid of all unwanted content, such as <<<<, ====, >>>>, you can git add the conflicted file and commit the merge.

As the git status said, git add \<file\>…” to mark resolution,

After we add all conflicted files and commit the merge as a commit, the merge operation is done.

Here is the git log after merging.

$ git log
*   40a0d08 - (HEAD, index_a) Merge with index_b
| * 94c2e8f - (index_b) Update copyright.
| * 3707797 - Update header.
* | fd581eb - Update index with 2015.
* 52aec20 - (master)

Reference: git checkout